Braies, Part 3: Women’s Braies

There has been great debate over whether or not women wore braies, and the case will be made here that there is in fact evidence that women could indeed wear them. Certainly, one of the major reasons men wore braies–to keep clothing clean from bodily soil—is a need women have as well. It can be argued that women’s shifts were long enough to cover the buttocks and could therefore offer this benefit, but then, so were men’s shirts. Crucially, evidence of women wearing braies exists in both the written and visual record, despite some ambiguity. (Women’s need for extra protection during menses probably had nothing to do with the wearing of braies, as some sort of belt is more likely to have held absorbent rags in place, much as was common practice until the modern-day co-existence of snug-fitting underpants and self-stick pads. That is the subject for a whole other line of research.)

1, Detail, Marginalia, Man and woman fight over pair of breeches (fol. 6v), Les voeuz du paon, Northern France or Belgium, possibly Tournai, ca. 1350. Pierpont Morgan Library, MS G.24 fol. 6v
Fig.1, Detail, Marginalia, women fight over pair of breeches (fol. 6v), Les voeuz du paon, Northern France or Belgium, possibly Tournai, ca. 1350. Pierpont Morgan Library, MS G.24 [link]
First, what to dismiss.There are plenty of examples of a figurative use of braies with women, and these should not be taken at face value or as evidence of anything other than the enduring presence of misogyny and the power of specific clothing as social markers, literally of “who wears the pants.” In art, this is the two women brawling over the braies, or the woman pulling on braies while her husband is relegated to holding her distaff (Fig. 1). In literature, it’s the hen-pecked peasant whose braies-wearing wife dominates him ( “qui chauce les braies”) (cited in White, p. 193). Some examples are murky, such as in Des Braies au Cordelier, where a wife’s infidelity is exposed when her husband accidentally puts on the braies left behind by her lover, but all is forgiven when she claims to have borrowed them from a friar for the purpose of wearing them herself as an aid to conceiving (quoted in Stillwell, Chaucer’s ‘Sad Merchant’, p. 8). Perhaps here the braies are being accepted as a talisman rather than as clothing, but that her husband sees nothing untoward in her excuse does lend some credence to the idea that braies on a woman are not out of the ordinary and certainly not against the rules.

2, Griselda
Fig. 2, Detail, Griselda removes her clothes (fol. 48), L’Estoire de Griseldis myz par personnages, 1395, Bibliothèque nationale de France MS Fr. 2203. [link]
Further care must be taken in interpreting the written record. For one thing, certain words are fraught with different meaning today than in the fourteenth century. For example, when the Mènagier de Paris relays the story of Patient Griselda, he refers to her as naked (“toute nue”) even though she is still wearing a chemise (Brereton, p. 220). Nakedness in this case refers to a state of improper dress and vulnerability rather than of total undress (Fig. 2). Probate inventories offer another glimpse at clothing norms, but it is also important to be aware of what is not mentioned in them. Rich or poor, the people whose belongings are listed must surely have had some body linens, but these garments are often absent from inventories, perhaps due to lack of perceived value. Piponnier’s work with fourteenth- and fifteenth-century peasant inventories reveals that many peasants had only one robe, one chaperon, and a few pieces of linens (cited in Burns, p. 169, note 10). Similarly, Vigarello’s analysis of wealthier inventories shows an equal absence of body linens: they might be listed with other household linens rather than with the clothing, but even so they are small in number (cited in Mazzaoui, p. 202 ). All this does not mean that these clothes did not exist—it simply means they were beneath mention. This is not a hard and fast rule, certainly the Great Wardrobe of Edward III’s reign does mention a variety of braies in the accounts of clothing purchased, though as a listing of financial transactions rather than of the possessions of the king it is a different kind of record than a probate inventory.

There is, sadly, no mistaking the explicit record of a rape trial. In 1337, Perrette de Lusarche and Perrette la Souplice, both aged twelve, were assaulted by Jehanin Agnes in Paris. The trial transcript includes the following account of the rape itself:

Là, en un selier, fist entrer, oultre son gré et par force, ladicte Perrete la Souplice, et la jeta à terre, et avala ses braies…”
                                                                                                              (Tanon, 88)

(There in a cellar he made her go, against her will and by force, the said Perrette la Souplice, and he threw her to the ground, and pulled down her braies…)

The two girls were apprentices, not people of high rank. And at least one of them wore braies. (For the record, Jehanin Agnes was convicted and hanged.)

In literature there are examples of women both with and without braies. Since women’s long skirts hide what is worn beneath, the presence or absence of braies usually comes to light in stories involving that part of the anatomy which braies cover—in tales of forced or consensual sex. For example, the Roman de Renart details a sexual assault that is brought to trial. Called to account, Renart insists the act was adultery rather than rape, because “he did not remove her braies” (“et puis qu’i n’i ot braies traites”) (Le Roman de Renart, Branch I, 1287, cited in Burns, note 23). In other words, since Renart did not have to remove Dame Hersent’s braies, she must have done so, signalling her sexual availability—but this also means that female braies were understood as a mark of modesty. Of course this story is a fabliau with anthropomorphised animals, however braies are specified.

Similarly, in the lay Lanval, written by Marie de France, a seduction-minded fairy is making her availability clear. She is described as follows: “Ele jut sur un lit mut bel…En sa chemise senglement “(vv. 97-99) (She lay upon a bed most fair… clad only in her chemise). In the ambiguity of language and commonly understood assumptions of the day, it is unclear whether braies would have warranted mention or not.

Chaucer’s Merchant’s Tale has yet another lady of easy virtue (but evident acrobatic ability) who goes without braies: with her temporarily-blinded husband at its base, May climbs a pear tree in whose branches her lover Damyan waits, whereupon he ”Gan pullen up the smok, and in he throng” (line 2353). Clearly there is no barrier to their sexual hijinx. Of course,  absence in these cases does not connote presence in others, so the question remains as to whether there ever would have been braies to begin with. Perrette la Souplice, a real young woman and not a fabliau character, might have argued there would have been.

There is evidence for both sides of the “does she or doesn’t she” debate in art as well. The 1375-1400 Egerton Genesis shows the rape of Dinah at Schechem in the marketplace; Dinah’s skirts are hiked up high, her calves are exposed, showing her knee-high chausses gartered in place, but there is no evidence of braies. (Fig. 3, see http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=egerton_ms_1894_f017r) She is a virtuous woman; is the absence of braies an accurate depiction of women’s wear, or artistic convenience? If artistic convenience, why then did the artist include the fine detail of her garters? We cannot know.

©Photo. R.M.N. / R.-G. Ojéda
Fig. 4, Detail, February, Très Riche Heures du Duc de Berry, attrib. Paul Limbourg, 1416, Musée Condé, Chantilly, MS 65 [link]
In a happier image, a peasant woman warming herself at the fire in the February page of the Tres Riche Heures of Duc de Berry is most definitely NOT wearing anything under her dress. But then, neither is her male companion when we know men did wear braies — clearly, braies could be optional for both sexes (Fig. 4). Is their commando state more indicative of class or condition than it is of garment usage? As the fabliaux described above indicate, lack of braies could be a signal of lack of virtue, as shown by the two very clearly braies-less prostitutes in Figure 5. This is a “historical” scene from Boccaccio, in which the Roman wanton Flora welcomes two prostitutes and their clients, but the clothing is not of the fantastical variety often used to signal scenes from the past. Like for Marie de France’s seductive fairy in Lanval, there is only a shift for the prostitute on the left, and its sheerness displays her complete nudity beneath. Her colleague in the center still has her gown on but has hiked her skirts to the waist, likewise revealing her own sheer shift peeking out from beneath as well as her equally braies-less, and accessible, body.

5, 1402, BNF 12420, Des cleres et nobles femmes, fol. 98v, Flora welcomes two prostitutes and their clients
Fig. 5, Detail, Flora welcomes two prostitutes and their clients (fol. 98v), Des cleres et nobles femmes, 1402, Bibliothèque nationale de France MS Fr. 12420. [link]
6, Sweet Apples Liege Tacuinum
Fig. 6, Detail, Sweet Apples (f. 6), 1380, Liège Tacuinum Sanitatis, Liège University Library, MS 1041. From Arano, black and white plate 10. [link]
There is a very inconclusive drawing of gathering sweet apples in the Liége Tacuinum Sanitatis of 1380, which offers a hint of possible knee-length braies (Fig. 6). The drawing is just vague enough to be frustrating; the woman’s hiked skirt clearly shows her right leg with chausses rolled at the knee, and intriguingly the uneven edge of a garment above it which seems to curl around the leg more than a shift would do. The fat, clumsy roll of the chausses peeking out from under her skirt on her left leg means that they could easily reach the top of the thigh, long enough to be pointed to braies when unrolled. Is that fabric peeking around her knee the hem of braies, or of her shift? Impossible to know for sure. But why should her chausses be so long unless they can be unrolled well past the knee to the thigh?

Another example, more convincing, is in the famed Fountain of Youth fresco in the Great Hall of Castello di Manta in Italy, painted in 1411 (Fig. 7). The scene is allegorical and fanciful, but the people in it are everyman— losing their heads a bit in their hurry to get naked and dive into the healing waters where they get frisky, certainly, but they are not mythical or socially coded personages. The woman in Figure 6 is wearing a very sheer shift; her breasts are visible, and there is a definite horizontal line at her hips and along tops of her thighs, as well as a definite solid whiteness painted differently than her skin. There even appears to be a small vertical slit on the outside of the braies leg. In short, they seem to be the same kind of braies as the men in the scene have on. Certainly, other women in the fresco are shown completely nude, but this woman is wearing braies under her shift, and not shown in a dominant or domineering role.

7, Fountain of Youth in camille
Fig. 7, Detail, Fountain of Youth, Castello di Manta, 1411 (photographed from Camille, Medieval Art of Love.) [link]
7, detail ECU

 

There are a few tantalizing hints in other places as well. Newton mentions that the 1350 Ordonnances des rois de France issued to Tailleurs et Cousturiers to regulate prices for clothes seems to mention  braies for women. They specify the price for a chemise (no more than eight deniers), and say that the price for robbes-linges, or underpants (Netwon’s reading), was to be the same as for men’s braies “of the normal style,” which in this context means the fashionable, shorter braies as opposed to the traditional draped style of the earlier century (Newton, p. 38). In addition, according to Rosita Levi Pisetzky (as cited in Mazzaoui, p. 202, note 45) Italian women were known to have been wearing braies from
the mid-twelfth century— and the Fountain of Youth fresco is Italian.

In short, women could wear the pants, quite literally.

 

Bibliography

Fig. 1, fol. 6v http://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/8/76974

Fig. 2, fol, 48, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b9059196q/f48.item

Fig, 3, fol. 17,  http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=egerton_ms_1894_f017r

Fig. 4, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Les_Très_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_février.jpg

Fig. 5, fol. 98v, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10509080f/f204.image.r=Français%2012420

Fig. 6, https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/2c/d1/14/2cd1149974997ea740a54ee327c546c9.jpg  (Apologies, I could not find images from the Liège Tacuinum online for a direct link, so this is from my own Pinterest board, photographed from Arano, black and white plate 10.)

Fig. 7 http://muckley.us/1386/clothing-men-underwear-2-camille.JPG, (Photographed from Camille, Medieval Art of Love)

Arano, Luisa Cogliati, The Medieval Health Handbook, George Brazillier, Inc.: New York, 1996

Brereton, Georgina E. and Janet M. Ferrier, eds., Le Mesnagier de Paris, Librairie Générale Française, 1994

Burns , E. Jane, Ladies Don’t Wear Braies: Underwear and Outerwear in the French Prose Lancelot, p. 152-174, The Lancelot-Grail Cycle: Text and Transformations , William W. Kibler, editor, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1994

Camille, Michael, The Medieval Art of Love: Objects and Subjects of Desire, Harry N Abrams B.V., 1998

Chaucer, Geoffrey, The Merchant’s Tale, Canterbury Tales

Gravdal, Kathryn, Ravishing Maidens: Writing Rape in Medieval French Literature and Law, Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991

Mazzaoui, Maureen Fennell , The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages (1100- 1600) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981 esp. 202 note 45

Newton, Stella Mary, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince, The Boydell Press, 1980 Nye, Ken, Recreating 14th Century Braies, 1997

O’Gorman, Richard, ed. Les Braies au cordelier. Anonymous Fabliau of the Thirteenth Century, Birmingham, AL: Summa Publications, 1987

Pisetzky, Rosita Levi, Storia del costume, II, Milan: Istituto Editoriale Italiano, 1964, pp. 22, 293, 363, 376

Rychner, Jean, ed. Lanval, Paris: Champion, 1973

Stillwell, Gardiner, Chaucer’s ‘Sad’ Merchant, Review of English Studies, vol XX, No. 77, January 1944, p. 1-18

Tanon, Louis, Registre criminal de la Justice de Saint-Martin-des-Champs à Paris au XIVe siécle, Paris: Léon Wilhelm, 1877

White, Sarah Melhado, Sexual Language and Human Conflict in Fabliaux, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 24, No. 2, April 1982, pp. 185-210.

 

Coming soon: Archaeological Evidence

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Braies, Part 2: A Brief History

Fig 1 Maciejowski fol 12v Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, Ms M. 638. Paris, 1240
Fig. 1, Detail, Gideon, Most Valiant of Men (fol. 12v) Maciejowski Bible, Paris, c. 1250. Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.638. The man on the right has his coulisse hanging down unrolled and it is long enough to reach his knees. The man to his left has his coulisse rolled and the hem of his braies knotted to his braies-girdle with cord through a slit.

The fourteenth century saw a great deal of change in what people wore. As the comments at the end of Part 1 show, these changes could seem shocking to contemporary writers complaining of radical new styles, but such observers were not positioned to see what was in fact a broader pattern of change over time.

By the thirteenth century, braies could reach anywhere from ankle to knee, but in general they began to shrink in length. Fig. 1 illustrates the typical characteristics. The legs were wide, the seat and crotch were very full, and they had no waistband; rather, the fabric above the hips, which when extended was long enough to reach mid-chest, was rolled down over the braies-girdle, or belt, that held the braies up, creating a thick roll. This roll was called the coulisse in French, meaning “slide;” possibly a reference to the way the braies-girdle could slide within the roll. The legs of the braies were not necessarily sewn into a closed tube as pants are today, but could be left open on the inside of the leg. As Fig. 1 shows, one end of the open hem could be knotted and tied up to the braies-girdle with a cord to control fullness.

The wearer could also tuck the hems into the tops of the chausses (Fig. 2), which were in turn tied or pointed to the braies-girdle through slits in the coulisse. Evidence from illuminations shows that this wasn’t as cumbersome as might be thought; in several cases, men are shown defecating and have simply pulled their braies down, with the coulisse and chausses (hose) still in place (Fig. 3). That this style was worn for so long indicates that it worked; braies stayed essentially unchanged for 200 years until the shift in fashions of the fourteenth century demanded a new solution.

After 1340, as tunic hemlines began to shrink and chausses began to fit more snugly, braies began to change shape. They lost their voluminous folds, their full, low-hanging crotch, and the thick roll of the coulisse narrowed. They moved to a low-profile waistband, to legs that fit the thigh more closely, and a crotch that contoured the groin  (Fig. 4). The old and new styles of braies co-existed for some time; intriguingly, the Great Wardrobe accounts from 1343-44 show that Edward III had several pairs of braies in both the new style (de novo modo) and the old style (de antiquo modo) for wear with the appropriate newfangled short tunics or old fashioned gowns, respectively (Newton, 17). This transition from a loosely draped undergarment, gathered to fit the body, into a constructed one resembling, by the end of the century, modern-day briefs began in earnest after the introduction of the cotehardie, pourpoint, paltok, and similar closely-tailored upper-body garments in mid-century (Newton, p. 55). Chausses started being attached to garments rather than to the braies. Now that braies no longer needed to support anything, yet had to accommodate ever- shorter and tighter clothing, they kept shrinking ( Fig. 5). By the early fifteenth century, the coulisse had become a mere casing with narrow ware coming out the front from eyelets; the two ends crossed in front within the casing by a few inches before emerging to be tied, creating braies that fit the buttocks, hips and thighs smoothly, and had a small pouch in front at the groin, achieved with piecing (Fig. 6). Eventually the legs shortened so much that in some cases, they had disappeared entirely, becoming essentially bikini briefs (Fig. 7).

Attitudes toward men’s braies 

To be seen in public in body linens was not something a man of stature would ever allow unless he was intentionally trying to humble himself. Peasants in the fields could strip off their outer layers of clothing in the heat of the day and work in shirt and braies. (Fig. 8) But a merchant or nobleman would not deign to do so. At best a man could roll down his chausses on a hot day, as many of the huntsmen in Gaston Phoebus have done (Fig. 9), but even this level of undress is not seen on men of higher degree.

Visible undergarments as indicator of social inferiority extends not only to peasants and laborers, but also to those being brought low by public execution, intentional social humbling — the penitential walk to Canossa by Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in 1077, for example, Henry II’s similar supplication at Canterbruy in 1174, or the burghers of Calais’ surrender to Edward III in 1347 — or for those otherwise outside the norm. The Fool in Figure 4 would have been understood to belong to this category by nature of his depiction; Fools were often shown barefoot, or with one shoe, sometimes only in their braies. This connotation of foolishness comes across in literature as well. In his epic poem, Parzival, Wolfram von Eschenbach (c. 1170-1220) describes the effort made by Queen Herzeloyde to keep her son from leaving her side to wander the world. Her solution is to send him out “im hemde unde bruoch…daz wart vür tôren cleit erkant.” (in shirt and braies… that was as fool’s dress known) so that, humbled by the poor treatment he’d be sure to get at the hands of strangers, he would turn again for home. As Geoffroy de La Tour Landry made clear in 1370, those who showed their braies were shameful.

Braies, Part 2 Bibliography and Links

Fig. 1, folio 18r: http://www.themorgan.org/collection/crusader-bible/24

Fig. 2, folio 18r: http://www.themorgan.org/collection/crusader-bible/24

Fig. 3, folio73r:  http://trin-sites-pub.trin.cam.ac.uk/manuscripts/b_11_22/page_75.jpg

Fig. 4, fol. 106r: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84546905/f213.image

Fig. 5: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrea_carloni/11565134806/

Fig. 6, fol. 287r:  http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b7100018t/f588.image

Fig. 7, fol. 18: http://wtfarthistory.com/post/10202855817/sexy-medieval-thong#sthash.GNnmCIog.dpuf

Fig. 8, fol. 87: http://opac.casanatense.it/Record.htm?Record=19928581124917467639

Fig. 9, fol. 64: http://www.themorgan.org/collection/livre-de-la-chasse/27#

Newton, Stella Mary, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince, The Boydell Press, 1980

Next: Braies for Women?

Braies, Part 1: Introduction

Name variants include: 

braies (French), breches, brechis, breeches, trewes (English), robae (English Great Wardrobe accounts), bruche (German), brache, mutande (Italian), bragas (Portuguese)

What are braies? 

Execution of followers of Thomas de Marle, Grandes Chroniques de France,1350-1400. Bibliotheque Nationale de france, FR 2813 fol. 200, detail
Fig. 1, Detail, Execution of followers of Thomas de Marle (fol. 200), Grandes Chroniques de France,1350-1400. Bibliotheque Nationale de France, FR 2813

“Thou woldest make me kisse thyn olde breech,
And swere it were a relyk of a seint,
Though it were with thy fundement depeint.”

Chaucer, The Pardoner’s Tale, 1386-1400

Chaucer’s description of an old pair of braies is very much to the point: braies were the medieval equivalent of underpants (Fig. 1), worn primarily to protect clothing from bodily soil. They were the innermost layer of clothes for men and, as will be argued later, possibly for women.They were most often made of linen, a fabric that could withstand frequent washing (though not often the rigors of centuries, alas.) Despite the rarity of extant survivors, we know linen was used through mention in numerous sources such as listings in the Great Wardrobe of Edward III and French royal household accounts, as well as references in more common inventories and literature. Often the term used is “robe-ligne”, literally ‘linen garment.’ Wool and hemp were also used: fourteenth century remnants of wool braies were found in Hull, England, and guild records from Genoa, Italy refer to ready-made hemp underclothes, including braies, sold at market by the thirteenth century (Mazzaoui, 203, note 45). Braies in artwork are usually white or undyed. Brown or black braies do appear in paintings after 1400, but the men wearing them are usually convicts being executed so it is quite possible that the color may be symbolic. In written references it is quite common to find the qualifying term ‘blanche,’ or white, used with braies.

Despite modern-day stereotypes, the written record makes clear that personal cleanliness was important to people living in the fourteenth century. There are many accounts of undergarments being changed on a daily basis. For example, in the household management manual, Le Ménagier de Paris, written circa 1393, a merchant is described as being given white linens and clean hose upon rising in the morning: “Et l’endemain eust robe-ligne blanche, chausses nectes” (Le Ménagier de Paris, First Section, Ninth Article, p.404) and the author’s young bride is encouraged to provide for her husband’s comfort in a similar manner. Braies were worn by everyone from king to peasant, though a poor man might find himself without, as the pilgrim in Piers Plowman (1362-92) goes “in poure cotes for pilgrimage to rome—no breche betwene” (Piers Plowman, MS Harley 2376, as quoted in Cunnington).

Braies were held to the body by a cord or a narrow belt (Fig. 2), and the legs tucked into the tops of the chausses, or hose, which for men were long enough to reach the groin (Fig. 3). As fourteenth century fashions for men got shorter and shorter, braies also provided a measure of modesty, though, if contemporary complaints of fashion-related flashing incidents are to be believed, not quite modesty enough. In 1370, in his The Book of the Knight of La Tour Landry, Geoffroy de La Tour Landry complained about “men that wered to shorte gownes and shewed her brechis, the which is her shame.” In the Grand Chroniques de France from 1346  (cited in Newton, p. 10), blame for the defeat of the French at Crécy is pinned on indecent noblemen, deserving of God’s punishment for wearing the new-fangled clothes so short and tight that they scarcely covered their buttocks, so that when they “bent to serve their lords they showed their braies as well as what was inside them”
(Fig. 4).

Braies, Part 1 Bibliography

The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, Early English Text Society, Original Series 33: London, 1868

Brereton, Georgina E. and Janet M. Ferrier, eds., Le Mesnagier de Paris, Librairie Générale Française, 1994

Mazzaoui, Maureen Fennell , The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages (1100- 1600) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981

Newton, Stella Mary, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince, The Boydell Press, 1980

Willett, C., and Phillis Cunnington, The History of Underclothes, Dover Publications, Inc.: NY, 1992

 

Next: Part 2, A Brief History